Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor for cancer treatment, and there are various ongoing clinical trials for nivolumab in different cancer types. The CheckMate 026 trial is a randomized trial comparing the treatment efficacy of nivolumab versus chemotherapy in first line therapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. However, there was no strong correlation between treatment response and PD-L1 expression. Therefore, researchers performed a subanalysis to assess if the tumor mutation burden (TMB) could determine nivolumab treatment response in 312 patients with evaluable TMB data. The results demonstrated that patients with a high mutation burden had a better progression free survival (9.7 vs 5.8 months; HR,0.62) and objective response rate (46.8% vs 28.3%) compared with the control arm. These findings imply that tumor mutation burden may be considered as a biomarker for nivoluamb in the first line treatment of advanced NSCLC.
AACR annual meeting 2017: http://www.abstractsonline.com/pp8/#!/4292/presentation/12630